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Kilosa -Morogoro Region rice farming  is a crop that is widely used by small and large farmers. Their annual yields produce good income but  there is another loss to the consumption of birds entering the field although they use different methods to deal with it examples most of use bags or tape to repel those birds but the problem is still largely unresolved.


To design an automatic protection system against birds in agriculture activities at kilosa- Morogoro. 


1) To design power circuit and position of the sensor. 

2) To design a system that send a message.

3) To provide prototype and testing.



Contactor analysis

 On this I  have chosen to use relay in the contactor,  the following are the specification of relay,

Coil voltage= 5 V DC

Coil resistance= 240 ohms

                𝑉/𝑅=(5 𝑉)/(240 )

So, current energized coil will get 0.02 A

Electrical Bell

On this component the following specification required on my project, these are;

Coil voltage= 5 V

Coil current= 0.025 A

So, resistance of coil will be 200 A

Power supply

The voltage from main power is 220Vac up to 240Vac with frequency of 50/60 Hz.

Transformer analysis, The voltage from main power is 220Vac up to 240Vac with frequency of 50/60Hz enter into the transformer and the output voltage required from transformer is 18Vac. 

The transformer ratio = 110:9

Rectifier analysis

The input voltage of bridge rectifier is 12Vac (π‘‰π‘Ÿπ‘šπ‘ ) with 50/60Hz from the secondary of the transformer. The peak secondary voltage (VP) is obtained by using the formula below: 

VP = 1.414Vrms 

VP = 1.41418 = 25.45volts  24.5volts. 


The peak rectified voltage = 24.5  1.4volts = 23.1volts. 

The average voltage (π‘‰π‘Žπ‘£π‘”): 

The Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) for each diode: 

PIV = π‘‰π‘π‘Ÿ+ 0.7volt. 

= 23.1  0.7volt = 23.8volts.

Regulator analysis

Voltage Regulator IC are selected,

 IC rating: 

Input voltage range 7V- 35V 

Current rating, I = 1A 

Output voltage range Vmax=12.2V, Vmin=11.8V

Contactor analysis,

I choice to use relay because am going to use DC supply 

The following are the relay specifications

Coil voltage= 5𝑉𝐷𝐢

Coil resistance= 240Ω 

I= 𝑉⁄𝑅 = 5⁄240 = 0.021𝐴

Motion sensor, this used to detecting the motion of birds that entering on the firm and sending signal to the coil of relay to making reaction.

Electrical bell, this when relay coil energized it closed and allow power to the bell and release a sound for removing a birds in the firm.

Relay, this is used to allow power from the sensor to the electrical bell when sensor sensing the birds entering in the firm.

Rectifier, this component used t convert AC to DC because many component use DC source.

Transformer, used to step-down the voltage required by rectifier rectified to DC source.

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